We engaged in six years of snap-shot surveys for fruit flies in rural environments and ten protected forest areas of Bangladesh, using traps baited with male lures (cue-lure, methyl eugenol, zingerone). Our work has increased the recorded number of species of Tephritidae in the country from seven to 37. We summarize these surveys and report eight new country occurrence records, and a new species (Zeugodacus madhupuri Leblanc & Doorenweerd, sp. nov.) is described. The highlight among the new records is the discovery, and significant westward range extension, of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, a major fruit pest detected in the Chattogram and Sylhet Divisions. We rectify the previously published erroneous record of Bactrocera bogorensis (Hardy), which was based on a misidentification of Zeugodacus diaphorus (Hendel). We also report the occurrence in Bangladesh of nine other Tephritidae, the rearing of three primary fruit fly parasitoids from Zeugodacus, and records of non-target attraction to fruit fly lures.