During an ongoing DNA-barcoding campaign of the leaf-mining moths that feed on woody plants in Northeast Asia, four lineages of the genus Phyllocnistis (Gracillariidae, Phyllocnistinae) were discovered on dogwood (Cornus spp): P. cornella Ermolaev, 1987 on C. controversa Hemsl. (Japan: Hokkaido) and three new species – one feeding on C. controversa, C. florida L. and C. macrophylla Wall. in Japan (Honshu, Shi- koku, Kyushu), a second species on C. macrophylla in China (Yunnan) and a third on Siberian dogwood Cornus alba L. in Russia (Siberia). All these species showed differences in morphology, in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene and in two nuclear genes (histone H3 and 28S ribosomal RNA). No correlation was found between the deep mitochondrial splits observed and the Wolbachia infection pattern. Based on both morphological and molecular evidence, the three recently discovered lineages are described here as new species: P. indistincta Kobayashi & Triberti, sp. n. (Japan), P. saepta Kirichenko, Ohshima & Huang, sp. n. (China) and P. verae Kirichenko, Triberti & Lopez-Vaamonde, sp. n. (Russia). In addition, the authors re-describe the adult morphology of P. cornella, provide the first record of this species from Japan and highlight the diagnostic characters that allow these Cornus-feeding Phyllocnistis species to be distinguished.